Automatic retry configuration
RPCs sometimes fail. When one does, the client performing the RPC needs to know whether it is safe to retry the operation. When status codes are used consistently across multiple APIs, clients can respond to failures appropriately.
Clients should automatically retry requests for which repeated runs would not cause unintended state changes, which are non-transactional, and which are unary.
Clients should not automatically retry transactional requests; instead these requests should have application-level retry logic that retries the entire transaction block from the start.
Clients should not automatically retry requests in which repeated runs would cause unintended state changes.
Note: This AIP does not cover client streaming or bi-directional streaming.
For methods listed as retryable above, clients should retry the following error codes:
UNAVAILABLE: This code generally results from network hiccups, and is generally transient. It is retryable under the expectation that the connection will become available (soon).
The following codes should not be automatically retried for any request:
OK: The request succeeded.
CANCELLED: An application can cancel a request, which must be honored.
DEADLINE_EXCEEDED: An application can set a deadline, which must be honored.
INVALID_ARGUMENT: Retrying a request with an invalid argument will never succeed.
DATA_LOSS: This is an unrecoverable error and must immediately be surfaced to the application.
Generally non-retryable codes:
The following codes generally should not be automatically retried for any request:
RESOURCE_EXHAUSTED: This code may be a signal that quota is exhausted. Retries therefore may not be expected to work for several hours; meanwhile the retries may have billing implications. If
RESOURCE_EXHAUSTEDis used for other reasons than quota and the expected time for the resource to become available is much shorter, it may be retryable.
INTERNAL: This code generally means that some internal part of the system has failed, and usually means a bug should be filed against the system. These should immediately be surfaced to the application.
INTERNAL, this code is reserved for truly unknown-to-the-system errors, and therefore may not be safe to retry. These should immediately be surfaced to the application.
ABORTED: This code typically means that the request failed due to a sequencer check failure or transaction abort. These should not be retried for an individual request; they should be retried at a level higher (the entire transaction, for example).
Some codes may be automatically retried if a system is designed without
synchronization or signaling between various components. For example, client
NOT_FOUND on a read operation, which is designed to hang forever
until the resource is created. However, these types of systems are generally
Therefore, the following codes should not be automatically retried for any request:
NOT_FOUND: A client should not retry until a resource is created.
ALREADY_EXISTS: A client should not retry until a resource is deleted.
PERMISSION_DENIED: A client should not retry until it has permission.
UNAUTHORIZED: A client should not retry until it is authorized.
UNAUTHENTICATED: A client should not retry until it is authenticated.
FAILED_PRECONDITION: A client should not retry until system state changes.
OUT_OF_RANGE: A client should not retry until the range is extended.
UNIMPLEMENTED: A client should not retry until the RPC is implemented.
- For parallel or retried request disambiguation, see AIP-154.